Dimensões, vidros e litros

Discussões sobre equipamentos que podem ser feitos em casa pelo próprio aquarista. Idéias, desenvolvimentos, resultados, comentários etc.

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adrialgape
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Dimensões, vidros e litros

Mensagempor adrialgape » 20 Out 2004, 23:29

Pessoal, devido ao grande pedido de ajuda com relação a medidas de vidro para determinada litragem aqui vai uma tabela padrão.
Obs: O problema é sempre a altura do aqua, portanto prestem mais atenção na altura do que em outros fatores.

Comp.xLarg.x Alt. (cm) Vidro (mm) Volume (L)
40x23x25 03 23
45x24x35 04 37
50x25x35 04 43
55x30x35 04 57
60x30x40 05 72
70x30x45 05 94
80x30x45 05 108
90x30x45 06 121
90x40x45 06 162
100x30x40 06 120
100x30x45 06 135
100x35x50 06 175
100x40x50 06 200
100x40x55 08 220
100x40x60 10 240
100x50x50 08 250
100x50x55 08 275
100x50x60 10 300
110x40x50 08 220
110x40x55 08 242
110x40x60 10 264
110x50x50 08 275
110x50x55 08 302
110x50x60 10 330
120x40x50 08 240
120x40x55 08 264
120x40x60 10 288
120x50x50 08 300
120x50x55 08 330
120x50x60 10 360
130x40x50 08 260
130x40x55 08 286
130x40x60 10 312
130x50x50 08 325
130x50x55 08 357
130x50x60 10 390
140x40x50 08 280
140x40x55 08 308
140x40x60 10 336
140x50x50 08 350
140x50x55 08 385
140x50x60 10 420
150x40x50 08 300
150x40x55 08 330
150x40x60 10 360
150x50x50 08 375
150x50x55 08 412
150x50x60 10 450
150x50x70 10 525
160x40x50 08 320
160x40x55 08 352
160x40x60 10 384
160x50x50 08 400
160x50x55 08 440
160x50x60 10 484
170x40x50 08 340
170x40x55 08 375
170x40x60 10 408
170x50x50 08 424
170x50x55 08 467
170x50x60 10 510
170x50x70 10 595
180x40x50 08 360
180x40x55 08 396
180x40x60 10 432
180x40x70 10 504
180x50x50 08 450
180x50x55 08 495
180x50x60 10 540
180x50x70 10 630
190x40x50 08 380
190x40x55 08 418
190x40x60 10 456
190x50x50 08 475
190x50x55 08 522
190x50x60 10 570
190x50x70 10 665
200x40x50 08 400
200x40x55 08 440
200x40x60 10 480
200x50x50 08 500
200x50x55 08 550
200x50x60 10 600

Espero ter ajudado!

Forte Abraço a todos!
Última edição por adrialgape em 26 Abr 2005, 20:19, editado 1 vez no total.

Alexandre Altieri
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Mensagempor Alexandre Altieri » 14 Abr 2005, 01:18

blz adrialgape...

indiquei sua tabela a um aquarista do forumaquario, indiquei a página do aqol também, porém fui alertado que algumas medidas de volume estavam erradas, por isso estou te comunicando sobre o fato para que você possa reparar esses detalhes...

tópico

mas ainda continua sendo a tabela mais completa a que tive acesso :D ...

valeu.
Última edição por Alexandre Altieri em 05 Jan 2006, 07:44, editado 1 vez no total.

adrialgape
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Mensagempor adrialgape » 26 Abr 2005, 20:16

Alealt, agradeço o seus elogios e o seu recado!

A lista já foi alterada!

Forte Abraço!

BETO
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Mensagempor BETO » 29 Abr 2005, 17:48

Muito legal a tabela. mas se não for pedir muito, seria interessante completar com a informação de quantidade de travas, o tipo e o posicionamento das mesmas...

acho que seria bastante interessante, ao menos para mim seria.
"VAMOS DAR UMA FOLGA PARA A AMAZÔNIA?"
Evite animais coletados nesse período de seca!!!

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Mensagempor Anibal » 04 Jun 2005, 19:18

Olá pessoal,

Quem quizer calcular a espessura de um aquario, tem uma planilha do Excel que faz isto. É a melhor e mais correta maneira que encontrei, após muita pesquisa.

Estou anexando a maneira de calcular, mas quem quiser a planilha, envie um email, que mando a planilha para o interessado, já que o texto está em Inglês e é bem técnico.

Um abraço a todos, Anibal

COMO CALCULAR A ESPESSURA DO VIDRO DE UM AQUARIO

How to Calculate the Glass Thickness for your Aquarium

Author: Warren Stillwell


Introduction
For too long now the thickness of glass required to make an aquarium has been a mystery. There are various tables and guidelines that specify the thickness of glass for a given size aquarium. The major drawback with the information is there is no indication of safety factors for the specified glass thickness or any indication of how the suggested thickness was calculated.
This article is intended to help those people who are serious about aquarium design to calculate the correct thickness of glass based on what is an acceptable safety factor for them. There are other points to consider as well as the formula that will also be covered.

This information is intended as a guide only, and is in no way a guaranteed formula for success. It is based solely on proven stress calculation methods and does not account for manufacturing defects or construction faults.


The Nature of Glass
Glass is a totally brittle substance. It will bend a very small amount, but has no capacity like most metals to deform. It will bend to a point and then break. It is this bending stress that is the focus for calculating the thickness.
Glass also has a wide variability in strength. Testing samples of uniform manufacture has proved this (see specifications for glass, - Tensile Strength 19.3 to 28.4MPa).
Glass is weak in tension, is elastic up to its breaking point, and has no ductility. It is not capable of being permanently deformed, and does not give any pre-warning of impending failure by showing a permanent set after an excessive load has been removed.
An important characteristic is its ability to carry an impulse load approximately twice its rated load (i.e. banging the aquarium with your hand quite hard). This is inevitably what saves many aquariums when they are accidentally knocked.
The variability of the strength of glass due to limitations of the manufacturing process means a suitable safety factor must be used when calculating glass thickness. The factor commonly used is 3.8. While not a perfect guarantee, it will remove all risk bar that of damaged or very poor quality glass. The main damage that will cause failures is scratches and chips. Also a point load on the glass surface will cause it to fail. For this reason a soft packer like polystyrene is used under aquariums to stop the point loading of dirt and grit.
Also when manufacturing an aquarium, the joining compound (commonly silicone) must have a minimum thickness (0.5-1mm) to allow for irregularities along the glass edge. When glass is cut it is not flat along its edge unless it has been specially ground.
It is possible to use a lower safety factor if the glass is of excellent quality and has no internal stress. It is at the designers risk however to lower the safety factor.


The Nature of Glass (Toughened – Temperado)

Toughened glass is considerably stronger than standard glass. It cannot however be cut. If toughened glass is to be used it must first be cut to size, have its edges finished and then be send away for toughening. The thermal resistance properties of glass are also improved by toughening. Standard 6mm glass will rupture if plunged into water at 21’C if the temperature of the glass is more than 55’C hotter or colder. Toughened glass will rupture at approximately 250’C difference. Toughened glass also has a tensile strength greater than 5 times that of standard glass. Standard glass has a very important advantage when used on aquariums. It tends to fail in a non-spectacular manner, - typically a vertical or diagonal crack. Toughened glass however will fail completely, much like the old style car windscreen (100% shattering).
Glass has a much lower coefficient of linear expansion that most metals. This is important if a metal frame is to be used as part of the structure of the aquarium. If so, the aquarium should be built and stored at a temperature similar to that which it will run at. The length of the aquarium will decide how much elasticity will need to be accommodated by the sealing compound used. Silicone Rubber is the most common sealing compound today. The thickness of the sealing layer needs to be changed as the seal length increases. A general rule of thumb is to allow 2-3mm per meter of joint length. This allows the silicone to take up the stretching forces between the glass and steel.


Glass Physical Characteristics:

Density:…………………………………...Coefficient of linear expansion:………..Softening Point:………………………….Modulus of Elasticity:……………………Poisson’s ratio:…………………………..Compressive Strength:………………….Tensile Strength:………………………...Tensile Strength (toughened glass):….. approx 2.5 at 21’C86 x 10-7m/’C730’C69GPa (69 x 109 Pa)Float Glass .22 to .2325mm Cube: 248MPa (248 x 106 Pa)19.3 to 28.4MPa for sustained loading175MPa.


Design Considerations:

The calculations that follow expect the glass to be supported around its perimeter on all four sides. The calculation is the same regardless of whether the perimeter join is in compression or tension. Typical all glass aquariums have all their joins in either tension or shear or both. This method of construction relies 100% on the strength of the silicone holding it together, and is also the weakest join type when using silicone. Steel frame aquariums have the silicone under compression. The silicone is not required to have any strength for this type of aquarium and serves only as a sealer and packer.
The thickness of the bottom glass is covered by the second set of calculations, but does not cover an aquarium which has a bottom glass that is well supported from below the aquarium in an even uniform manner. The surface must be very level. On very large aquariums this can be difficult to achieve and self-leveling filler may be needed between the polystyrene and the base. This should be applied just prior to fitting the aquarium to the base so that the aquarium’s weight levels out imperfections. Significant time must be allowed for the filler to fully cure before the aquarium is filled. If the bottom glass is only to be supported by all four edges then use the second set of calculations. The same thickness glass can be used on a uniformly supported bottom as well and this will significantly improve the safety factor. If the aquarium is to be supported from below in a uniform distributed manor, then the same thickness glass that is used for the largest side panel may be used. To do so requires the supporting base to support part of the load so therefore it must be VERY strong.

NOTE: The calculations only consider the water to the top edge of the glass. If the glass is a window below the surface then it is outside the scope of this article.





Calculations
Terms Used
Length in mm (L):Width in mm (W):Height in mm (H):Thickness in mm (t):Water Pressure (p):Allowed Bending Stress (B):Modulus of Elasticity (E): The length of the aquarium.The width of the aquarium from front to back.The overall depth of water that is in contact with the glass, but does not exceed its upper edge.The thickness of the Glass.The force in Newton’s (N).Tensile Strength / Safety FactorElastic Strength

The length to height ratio effects the strength of the glass. The table below lists alpha and beta constants to be used based on with the length to height ratio.


Table of Alpha and Beta Constants used in the Caculations

Ratio of Length toHeight (L/H) For Side Panels For Bottom Panels
Alpha Beta Alpha Beta
0.5000.6661.0001.5002.0002.5003.000 0.00300.00850.02200.04200.05600.06300.0670 0.08500.11560.16000.26000.32000.35000.3700 0.07700.09060.10170.11100.1335 0.45300.51720.56880.61020.7134

When the ratio is less than 0.5, use Alpha and Beta values for 0.5.
When the ration is greater than 3, use Alpha and Beta values for 3.

Note: For bottom panel, use Length to Width ration (L/W).

The water pressure (p) is directly proportional to the Height (H) x the force of gravity
(approx 10 (9.81 for people who want to be exact)).

p = H x 10 in N/mm2

The bending stress allowed (B) is equal to the Tensile Strength of glass / safety factor.
B = 19.2 / 3.8 = 5.05N/mm2 (Safety factor = 3.8)

Calculations for Front and Side Glass Panels:
The thickness of the glass (t) is proportional to the (square root of width factor (beta) x height (H) cubed x 0.00001 / allowable bending stress (B)).

so; t = SQR (beta x H^3 x 0.00001 / 5.05) in mm.

Select beta and alpha from the previous chart based on the length to height ratio.

The deflection of the glass is proportional to (alpha x water pressure (p) x 0.000001 x Height^4) / (Modulus of elasticity (E) x Thickness (t) cubed).

Deflection = (Alpha x p x 0.000001 x H^4) / (69000 x t^3) in mm.

Example: (Warren’s new tank)

Aquarium Length = 3000mm
Aquarium Height = 950mm
Safety Factor = 3.8 L/H>3 therefore Beta = 0.37 and Alpha = 0.067

p = 950 x 10 = 9500N/m²

Side Thickness:
t = SQR (0.37 x 0.950^3 x 0.00001 / 5.05)

= 25.06mm

Deflection = (0.067 x 9500 x 0.000001 x 950^4) / (69000 x 25^3)

= 0.48mm


Calculations for Bottom Glass Panel:
There is a small difference when calculating the bottom panel thickness. Beta is now calculated from the Length/Width (where the length L is the larger dimension - therefore L/W is always >=1). The Height is still used to calculate the pressure. Be sure to use the Bottom Panel Alpha/Beta values.

The thickness of the bottom glass (t) is proportional to the square root of width factor (beta) x height (H) cubed x 10-5 / allowable bending stress (B), - the same as the side panels.

t = SQR (beta x H^3 x 0.00001/5.05) in mm

Select beta and alpha from the previous chart based on the length to width ratio.

The deflection of the glass is proportional to (alpha x water pressure (p) x 10-6 x Height^4) / (Modulus of elasticity (E) x Thickness (t)cubed).

Deflection = (Alpha x p x 0.000001 x H^4) / (69000 x t^3) in mm.

Example: (Warren’s new tank)

Aquarium Length = 3000mm
Aquarium Width = 900mm
Aquarium Height = 950mm
Safety Factor = 3.8 L/W>3 therefore Beta = 0.7134 and Alpha = 0.1335

p = 950 x 10 = 9500N/m2

Bottom Thickness:
t = (SQR (0.7134 x 950^3 x 0.00001) / 5.05)

= 34.8mm

Deflection = (0.1335 x 9500 x 0.000001 x 950^4) / (69000 x 34.83^3)

= 0.355mm
Anibal Maranhão

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Mensagempor Magáli » 24 Jan 2006, 12:25

Sempre temos novos tópicos perguntando sobre espessura de vidros x litragem x tamanho, por isso estou tornando este tópico fixo para eventuais consultas e facilitar a vida de todos (já que a PESQUISA é de difícil acesso :twisted: ).

Espero que LEIAM antes de criar novos tópicos :roll:
"A neve e as tempestades matam as flores, mas nada podem contra as sementes."
Khalil Gibran

Anibal
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Mensagempor Anibal » 24 Jan 2006, 12:57

Bom dia Magáli,

Fico contente que um item que eu tenha postado, tenha sido fixado e possa ajudar a muita gente interessada em como calcular a espessura do vidro para aquarios.

Porém como citei o texto é em inglês ebastante técnico, dificultando o entendimento para vários aquaristas.

Proponho que a planilha, em Excel, que faz os cálculos, também seja anexada e fixada a este artigo, pois assim os cálculos ficam muito mais fáceis.

Caso você concorde, me avise que envio a planilha para você incorporar ao artigo.

Um abraço, Anibal
Anibal Maranhão

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4mm

Mensagempor diegumn » 10 Fev 2006, 21:02

Olá senhores, preocupado com a segurança como sempre, pedi para uma vidraçaria confeccionar um aquário, o qual terá 80 cm de comprimento, 40 cm de altura e 22 de largura...

Conversei com o rapaz que irá montar, ele disse que o vidro de 4 mm suportaria perfeitamente..

O que acham?

Anibal
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Mensagempor Anibal » 12 Fev 2006, 16:56

Boa tarde Diegumn,

De acordo com a planilha de cálculo que tenho, a espessura deveria ser de 6mm com um coeficiente de segurança de 3,35.

Com um vidro de 4mm de espessura, o coeficiente de segurança cai para 1,5 (é bem pouco!).

O coeficiente de segurança recomendado é 3,8.

Um abraço, Anibal
Anibal Maranhão

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Mensagempor negretto » 02 Mar 2006, 22:51

Aníbal,

Já li todo o seu post sobre o dimensionamento dos vidros, achei muito bom mesmo, mas estou com dificuldades para obter Alfa e beta.... não consegui entender sua tabela... será quie daria para vc postar uma tabela mais clara ou então passar a fórmula para obtêlos em função da relação entre a altura e a largura do Aqua?

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